Table 1: Skin-to-skin effects in term infants and citations*

 

 

 

EFFECT

CITATION(S)

Better heart rate

Nolan & Lawrence, 2009

Sooner heart rate stability

Christensson et al., 1992; Mazurek et al., 1999; Takahashi et al., 2011

Better cardio-respiratory stability

Bouloumie, 2008; Sontheimer et al., 2004

Better respiratory rate

Nolan & Lawrence, 2009

Increased breath volume

Erlandsson et al., 2008

Better gaseous exchange

Erlandsson et al., 2008

Early cessation of respiratory distress (Case study only, no group comparisons)

Trotter, 2005

Better blood glucose level thru-out first 90 mins postbirth

Chirstensson et al., 1992, 1996; Mazurek et al., 1999

Decreased metabolic stress

Christensson et al., 1996; Chantry, 2005

Better body temperature and temperature earlier in neutral thermal zone

(Huang et al. 2006) Bystrova et al., 2003; Carfoot et al., 2005; Christensson et al., 1992, 1996; Chwo & Huang, 2002; Durand et al., 1997; Franssen et al., 2005; Gardner, 1979; Huang et al., 2006; Marin et al., 2010; Mazurek et al., 1999; Moore et al., 2009

Prevents hypothermia

Bergstrom et al., 2005; Byaruhanga et al., 2005

Better temperature stability from 15 mins-4 hours postbirth

Britten, 1980; Curry, 1979, 1982; Fardig, 1980; Gomez-Papi, et al., 1998; Johanson et al., 1992; Villalon & Alvarez, 1992, 1993

Faster rewarming after bath

Bergstrom et al., 2005; Byaruhanga eta l., 2005;Medves & O’Brien, 2004

Decreased # of infections, early post-birth, at 6 months and at 12 months

Kitajima, 2003; Sosa et al., 1976

Decreased cortisol level-if >60 mins of Birth S2S

Takahashi, et al., 2011

Decreased infant stress

Morgan et al., 2011; Takahashi et al., 2011

Decreased birth weight loss (33% have no loss)

Bouloumie, 2008; Odent, 1989

Faster recovery of birth weight loss

Bystrova et al., 2007

Decreased crying episodes and duration

Anderson et al., 1995; Anisfeld & Lipper, 1998; Christensson et al., 1992, 1995, 1996; Chwo & Huang, 2002; De Chateau & Wiberg, 1997a; Erlandsson et al., 2007, 2008; Mazurek et al., 1999; Michelsson et al., 1996; Widstrom, 2011

Increased smiling @ 3 months

De Chateau & Wiberg, 1977a

Decreased pain perception

Abdel-Razak et al., 2009; Belleini et al., 2002; Chermont et al., 2009; Gray et al., 2000, 2002;  Kashaninia et al., 2008; Long, 2010; 2 Moore et al., 2007; Okan et al., 2010; Sajeidi et al., 2007; Tsao et al., 2007, 2008; Vivancos et al., 2010

Activates infant speech motor areas

Gentilucci & Dalla Volta, 2008

Stimulates imitation of maternal sounds

Lepage & Theoret, 2007

Better interactions with mother

Moore, et al., 2007

Accelerated development in first year of life

Bystrova, 2009; Bystrova et al., 2003; De Chateau & Wiberg, 1984; Wiberg et al., 1989

Crawl to breast

Righard & Alade, 1990; Widstrom et al., 1987

Better preparation of the breast for breastfeeding by infant

Carfoot et al., 2003; Erlandsson et al., 2007; Mathiesen, et al., 2001; Mizuno et al., 2004; Ransjo-Arvidson et al., 2001

Better latch

Meyer & Anderson, 1999; Gouchon et al., 2010

Better sucking technique

Righard & Alade, 1990

Better breastfeeding effectiveness

Moore & Anderson, 2007

Increased likelihood of breastfeeding success

Kroeger & Smith, 2004; Simkiss, 1999

Increased initiation of breastfeeding

Anderson et al., 2003; Gomez-Papi, et al., 1998; Lindenberg et al., 1990; Mathiesen et al., 2001; Mikiel-Kostyra & Mazur, 1998; Mizuno et al., 2004; Ransjo-Arvidson et al., 2001; Walters et al., 2007

Increased breastfeeding duration

Anderson et al., 2003; De Chateau & Wiberg, 1977a; Mikiel- Kostyra & Mazur, 2000; Mikiel-Kostyra et al., 2001, 2002;Mizuno et al., 2004; Moore et al., 2007; Shiau, 1997; Sosa et al., 1976; Taylor et al., 1985; Wimmer-Puchinger & Nagel, 1982

Increased breastfeeding exclusivity

Bramson et al., 2010; Carfoot et al., 2004, 2005; Marin et al., 2010; Mikiel-Kostyra et al., 2001, 2002, 2005; Thomson et al., 1979; Vaidya et al., 2005

 

 

 

 

*compared to swaddled holding, swaddled in cot, under radiant warmer or in incubator or warming unit unless otherwise noted.

 

 

 

All citations are available free on KC Bib at www.kangaroocareusa.org

 

©2011 Ludington-Hoe and United States Institute for Kangaroo Care (www.kangaroocareusa.org)

 

 

Table 2: Skin-to-skin effects in mothers of full term infants *

 

 

 

EFFECT

CITATION(S)

Increased infant contact and attachment behaviors 

Anisfeld & Lipper, 1983; Carlson et al., 1978, 1979, 1980; De Chateau & Wiberg, 1977a; Klaus et al., 1972; Kontos, 1978; McClellan & Cabianca, 1980; Odent, 1989; Schaller et al., 1979; Widstrom et al., 1990 

More affectionate behaviors during breastfeeding 

Hales et al., 1975, 1976, 1977

Increase time spent with infant throughout postpartum

Carlson et al., 1978, 1980; Hwang, 1981; Schaller et al., 1979; Widstrom et al., 1990

Intense desire to gaze at, touch, hold S2S

Finigan & Davies, 2004

Increased maternal-infant attachment

McClellan & Cabianca, 1980

Better maternal-infant interaction over 1st year

Bystrova et al., 2009; De Chateau & Wiberg, 1977a, 1984; Takahashi et al., 2011

Distracts mothers from episiotomy repair or cesarean sensations

Byaruhanga et al., 2008; Hung & Berg, 2011; Walters et al., 2007

Decreases lochia amount

Dordevic et al., 2008 (a randomized controlled trial of 216 mothers)

Decreases anemia on Postpartum Day 3

Dordevic et al., 2008 (a randomized controlled trial of 216 mothers)

Fewer cases of poor involution

Dordevic et al., 2008 (a randomized controlled trial of 216 mothers)

Earlier placental expulsion

Marin et al., 2010 (a randomized controlled trial of137 mothers)

Decreased serum gastrin (better metabolic adaptation)

Widstrom et al., 1990

Decreased cortisol & ACTH

Handlin et al., 2009

Decreased anxiety

Nolan & Lawrence, 2009; Shiau, 1997

Increased satisfaction and happiness with care

Carfoot et al., 2005; Gouchon et al., 2010; Thomson et al., 1979

Better appearance for postpartum follow-up

Anisfeld & Lipper, 1983

Recognize that S2S helps breastfeeding

Byaruhanga et al., 2008; Tofteland et al., 2006

Decreased engorgement

Shiau, 1997

Increased success of BF

Anderson et al., 2004; Burkhammer et al., 2004

 

 

 

All citations are available free on the KC Bib at www.kangaroocareusa.org

 

©2011 Ludington-Hoe and United States Institute for Kangaroo Care